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Godzilla (1998 film)

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Size Does Matter.
GODZILLA tagline


GODZILLA®
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Directed by Roland Emmerich
Produced by Dean Devlin
Written by

Roland Emmerich,  Dean Devlin, Ted Elliot, Terry Rossio

Based on Godzilla by Toho Company. LTD.
Starring

Matthew Broderick, Jean Reno, Maria Pitillo, Hank Azaria, Kevin Dunn, Michael Lerner, Harry Shearer

Music by David Arnold

Michael Lloyd

Cinematography Ueli Steiger
Editing by Peter Amundson

David Siegel

Studio Centropolis Entertainment

TriStar Pictures

Distributed by TriStar Pictures

Sony Pictures Entertainment

Release date(s) May 20, 1998
Running time 139 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $130,000,000[1]
Box office $379,014,294[1]
Followed by

Godzilla 2 (cancelled)

Godzilla: The Series (1998-2000)

Godzilla (also titled GODZILLA and Godzilla - The Movie) is a 1998 science fiction monster disaster film co-written and directed by Roland Emmerich. It is a loose remake of the 1954 giant monster film classic Gojira and its 1956 Americanized version Godzilla, King of the Monsters!. The storyline was conceived from a screenplay written by Emmerich and Dean Devlin. The film relates to a fictional tale involving a nuclear incident in the South Pacific which causes an abnormal mutation to occur in a reptile. The beast migrates to North America and wreaks havoc on Manhattan. Incorporated in the plot is the character of Dr. Niko "Nick" Tatopoulos, played by actor Matthew Broderick. Tatopoulos, an American scientist whose work involves the effects of exposed nuclear radiation on species; is recruited by the military to help contain and subdue the creature referred to as "zilla". The ensemble cast also features Maria Pitillo, Hank Azaria, Kevin Dunn, along with French actor Jean Reno in principal supporting roles.

The film was a co-production between the motion picture studios of Centropolis Entertainment and TriStar Pictures. It was commercially distributed by TriStar Pictures theatrically, and by Sony Pictures Entertainment for home media. Godzilla explores nuclear mutation, crisis management and military warfare.[2] Following its wide release in theaters, the film won and was nominated for multiple mainstream awards, including Saturn Award nominations for Best Special Effects, Best Fantasy Film, and Best Director. The film also won the People's Choice Award in the category of Best European Director for Emmerich from the European Film Awards. On May 19, 1998, the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released by the Epic Records label. It features songs written by several recording artists including The Wallflowers, Rage Against the Machine, Silverchair, and the Foo Fighters. The film score was composed and orchestrated by musicians David Arnold and Nicholas Dodd.

Godzilla premiered in theaters nationwide in the United States on May 20, 1998 grossing $136,314,294 in domestic ticket receipts. It earned an additional $242,700,000 in business through international release to top out at a combined $379,014,294 in gross revenue, but despite this it was considered a disappointment at the box office[3]. The widescreen DVD edition of the film featuring theatrical trailers, scene selections, and selected commentary, among other highlights was released in the United States on November 3, 1998. The film spawned an animated television spin-off sequel, titled Godzilla: The Series, which premiered September 12, 1998 on the Fox Kids network.

Plot

Following a nuclear test in French Polynesia in the early 70's, an iguana nest is irradiated by the fallout of subsequent radiation, and all but one egg survives. Decades later, a Japanese fishing vessel is suddenly attacked by an enormous sea creature in the South Pacific ocean; only one seaman survives. Traumatized, he is questioned by a mysterious Frenchman in a hospital regarding what he saw, to which he replies one word, "Gojira".[2]

Dr. Niko "Nick" Tatopoulos (Matthew Broderick), an NRC scientist, is in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in Ukraine researching the effects of radiation on wildlife, but is suddenly interrupted by the arrival of an official from the U.S. State Department. He is sent to Tahiti and Jamaica, escorted by the military, to observe the wreckage of the recovered Japanese fishing trawler with massive claw marks on it. The Frenchman is also present, observing the scene, and introduces himself as Philippe Roaché (Jean Reno), an insurance agent. Aboard a military aircraft, Nick identifies skin samples he discovered in the shipwreck as belonging to an unknown species. He dismisses the military's theory that the creature is a living dinosaur, instead deducing that it is a mutant created by nuclear testing. The large reptilian creature dubbed as "Godzilla" by the media (or more specifically by Charles Caiman), travels to New York City leaving a path of destruction in its wake. The city is evacuated as the military attempts to kill it but fails in an initial attempt. Dr. Tatopoulos later collects a blood sample and learns that Godzilla reproduces asexually and is collecting food for its offspring. Aspiring journalist and ex-girlfriend of Dr. Tatopoulos, Audrey Timmonds (Maria Pitillo), uncovers a classified tape in his provisional military tent which concerns the origins of the lizard. Her superior Charles Caiman (Harry Shearer) however, declares the tape as his own media discovery. The tape is broadcast on television embarrassing the military on the sensitive nature of the situation. Dr. Tatopoulos is thrown off the team but is kidnapped by Roaché, who reveals himself to be an agent of the DGSE, the French foriegn intelligence agency. He and his colleagues have been keeping close watch on the events and are planning to cover up their role in the nuclear accident that spawned the creature. Suspecting a nest somewhere in the city, they cooperate with Dr. Tatopoulos to trace and destroy it.[2]

Following a chase with Godzilla, the creature dives into the Hudson River where it is attacked by a Navy submarine. After sustaining head-on collisions with torpedoes, the beast sinks after being rendered incapacitated. Believing it is finally dead, the authorities celebrate. Dr. Tatopoulos and Roaché's special operations team, covertly followed by Timmonds and her cameraman Victor "Animal" Palotti (Hank Azaria), make their way through underground subway tunnels to Madison Square Garden. There, they locate numerous eggs, having finally found the nest. As they attempt to destroy them by planting explosives, the eggs suddenly hatch. Sensing the human intruders as food, the Baby Godzillas begin attacking them. Dr. Tatopoulos, Timmonds, Animal, and Philippe take refuge in the coliseum's broadcast booth and send a live news report to alert the military of what will happen if the lizards escape. A prompt response involving an airstrike is initiated as the four escape moments before the arena is bombed. Godzilla however, survived the torpedo attack earlier underwater and emerges from the venue's ruins. Discovering all of its offspring dead, it roars in anger and chases Dr. Tatopoulos, Roaché, Timmonds and Palotti through the streets of Manhattan. In pursuit of the quartet, Godzilla eventually makes its way to the Brooklyn Bridge. The creature helplessly becomes trapped in its steel suspension cables, making it an easy target. After being attacked by military aircraft, it falls to the ground and slowly dies. Meanwhile, amidst the Garden's ruins, a lone egg has survived the aerial bombardment and begins to hatch.[2]

Cast

Matthew Broderick  as Dr. Niko Tatopoulos
Jean Reno as Philippe Roaché
Maria Pitillo as Audrey Timmonds
Hank Azaria as Victor "Animal" Palotti
Kevin Dunn as Major Anthony Hicks
Michael Lerner as Mayor Ebert
Harry Shearer as Charles Caiman
Arabella Field as Lucy Palotti
Vicki Lewis as Dr. Elsie Chapman
Doug Savant as Sergeant O'Neal
Malcolm Danare as Dr. Mendel Craven
Lorry Goldman as Gene - Mayor's Aide
Frank Welker as Godzilla (creature vocals)

Development

In October, 1992, the American company TriStar Pictures bought the rights to the Godzilla-character from Toho Co., Ltd. and came to an agreement to produce a trilogy of Godzilla-films and that a sequel should be released within five years of the release of the first film. The first film was to be released by Sony subsidiary TriStar Pictures in the summer of 1994. In May 1993 producer Cary Woods hired Ted Elliot and Terry Rossio (the writers of Aladdin, Shrek, Pirates of the Carribean) to write the screenplay for Godzilla (1994 film). After months of fruitless searching for a director, the studio signed Jan DeBont (fresh off the Keanu Reeves/Sandra Bullock hit Speed) in July, 1994. DeBont began pre-production on Godzilla for a summer 1996 release, but quit the film at the end of 1994 when Sony would not approve his budget request. With no director attached to the project, TriStar’s Godzilla went into production limbo for the next year.[1]

Script

 Main article: Godzilla (1998 script)

Prior to the release of their much anticipated Independence Day (1996), producer Dean Devlin and director Roland Emmerich agreed to make Godzilla under the condition that their production company Centropolis Entertainment would have the freedom to do the movie “their way”. The duo discarded the script and preliminary work done for DeBont’s aborted version. Emmerich had designer Patrick Tatopoulos (Stargate, Pitch Black, Underworld) create a totally new look for the monster; a slim, fast-moving creature taking inspiration from iguanas (mainly Green Iguana and Marine Iguana), crocodiles and ostritches. Tatopoulos explains that Godzilla's legs are dinosaur-legs which he created after looking on the legs on birds such as the ostritch. He also stated that his Godzilla-design is like what a traditional legendary fire-breathing dragon would have looked like in real life. Toho gave their approval for the changes made to Godzilla saying they "love this design", and the film was finally scheduled for May 19, 1998. Based on the popularity of Godzilla and the blockbuster success of Independence Day, Devlin and Emmerich’s Godzilla was predicted to be the top box office hit of 1998.[2]

Designs

Patrick Tatopoulos was contacted early on by Emmerich and asked to design the new Godzilla. According to Tatopoulos, the only specific instructions Emmerich gave him was that it should be able to run incredibly fast.[3] Godzilla, originally conceived as a robust, erect-standing, plantigrade reptilian sea monster, was reimagined by Tatopoulos as a lean, digitigrade bipedal iguana that stood with its back and tail parallel to the ground. Godzilla's color scheme was designed to reflect and blend in with the urban environment.[3] At one point, it was planned to use motion capture from a human to create the movements of the computer-generated Godzilla, but it ended up looking too much like a human in a suit.[4]

Conceptual artwork

Modeling and robotics

Animation

Filming

When it came to filming scenes on the Kualoa Ranch in Oahu, Hawaii, where films like Jurassic Park and Pearl Harbor also have been filmed, several gigantic artificial footprints of Godzilla were created.[5] Today this site has been part of a TV and movie-tour on the island.[6]

Music and sounds

The soundtrack for the 1998 film was composed by David Arnold. The sounds and roars of Godzilla and the Baby Godzilla were made by Frank Welker.

Promotion

During 1998, prior to the release of Godzilla, several advertisements for the film could be seen everywhere. Ads on a FLXIBLE 9322 bus said "His foot is as long as this bus."[7] Several trailers, teasers and TV-spots also aired on television to promote the new film.

Teaser posters

Theatrical posters

Home entertainment posters

Promo posters

Teaser trailers

Official trailers

TV-spots

Soundtrack

 Main article: Godzilla: The Album

The soundtrack featuring alternative rock music was released on May 19, 1998 by Epic Records.[8] It was a success on the music charts, peaking at number 2 on the Billboard 200 and was certified platinum on June 22, 1998. The original score was composed by David Arnold. The film's score was not released on CD until 9 years later, when it went on sale as a complete original film score in 2007 by La La Land Records.[9]

GODZILLA: THE ALBUM
01
Soundtrack album by Various artists
Released 05/19/1998
Length 59:04
Label Epic Records
Godzilla: The Album
No. Song title - Performer Length
1. "Heroes - The Wallflowers" 3:56
2. "Come With Me - Puff Daddy, Jimmy Page" 6:06
3. "Deeper Underground - Jamiroquai" 4:42
4. "No Shelter - Rage Against The Machine" 4:03
5. "Air - Ben Folds Five" 3:20
6. "Running Knees - Days Of The New" 3:41
7. "Macy Day Parade - Michael Penn" 4:18
8. "Walk The Sky - Fuel" 3:17
9. "A320 - Foo Fighters" 5:44
10. "Brain Stew - Green Day" 3:57
11. "Untitled - Silverchair" 3:31
12. "Out There - Fuzzbubble" 2:48
13. "Undercover - Joey DeLuxe" 5:11
14. "Opening Titles - David Arnold" 2:42
15. "Looking For Clues - David Arnold" 1:48
Total length: 59:04

Release

Theatrical run

In interviews promoting The Day After Tomorrow, Emmerich admitted regretting the production of Godzilla, particularly due to the rushed shooting schedule that was required for a Memorial Day weekend release and the studio's insistence on not test-screening the film. However, he defended the film as better than critics gave it credit for, as it was financially successful, and out of all the films he directed, it was the one which parents told him their children enjoyed the most.[10] At its release, the film was much criticized by Godzilla fans the world over. Kenpachiro Satsuma, the actor who portrayed Godzilla in the second series of films (1984–1995) walked out of a Tokyo screening and told reporters that, "It's not Godzilla, it does not have the spirit".[11]

Godzilla was initially projected to break the four-day Memorial Day long weekend opening record of $90,161,880 set by The Lost World: Jurassic Park a year earlier.[10] Instead, Godzilla's four-day opening weekend gross returned $55,726,951 in ticket sales.[11]

GODZILLA® (1998) - Interview with Maria Pitillo at the 1998 Premiere Screening00:35

GODZILLA® (1998) - Interview with Maria Pitillo at the 1998 Premiere Screening

GODZILLA® (1998) - Interview with Doug Savant at the 1998 Premiere Screening00:28

GODZILLA® (1998) - Interview with Doug Savant at the 1998 Premiere Screening

Home media

Following its cinematic release in theaters, the Region 1 widescreen edition of the film was released on DVD in the United States on November 3, 1998. Special features for the DVD include; photo galleries, visual effects and special FX supervisor commentaries, the music video of "Heroes" by The Wallflowers, Behind the Scenes of Godzilla with Charles Caiman, theatrical trailers, a featurette, director/producer and cast biographies, a photo gallery, music video, and Godzilla Takes New York (before and after shots).[12] Additionally, a special edition DVD was also released by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment on March 28, 2006. The DVD contains all of the above features as well as the "All-Time Best of Godzilla Fight Scenes" featurette, 3 episodes from Godzilla: The Animated Series, and a "never-before-seen" production art gallery.[13]

The widescreen high-definition Blu-ray Disc version of the film was released on November 10, 2009. Special features include the visual effects commentary, the "Behind the Scenes of Godzilla with Charles Caiman" and "All Time Best of Godzilla Fight Scenes" featurettes, as well as the music video of "Heroes" by The Wallflowers.[14] A supplemental viewing option for the film in the media format of video on demand is available as well.[15]

The film was re-released on Blu-ray 1080p "Mastered in 4K" format on July 16, 2013.[16]

Reception

Critical response

Among mainstream critics in the U.S., the film received generally negative reviews.[17] Rotten Tomatoes reported that only 25% of 63 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 4.7 out of 10.[18] At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, the film received a score of 32 based on 23 reviews.[17] In 1999, at the Huntley Hotel Garden Room in Santa Monica, California, the film won Golden Raspberry Awards for Worst Supporting Actress for Pitillo and Worst Re-Make or Sequel. The film was also nominated for Worst Picture, Worst Director, and Worst Screenplay.[19]

Film critic Aladino Debert of Variety was consumed with the nature of the special effects exclaiming, "the title creature is wonderfully designed and the animation is excellent." Complimenting the technical aspects of the film, he summarized, "The integration of the lizard into its surroundings is for the most part very well accomplished, with rigged cars collapsing under the massive weight of Godzilla, and buildings either demolished or partially damaged. The compositing of the debris and pyrotechnics is generally good, especially when the monster runs or walks on the streets: The asphalt gives way convincingly every time the massive feet touch the ground, and a variety of CGI elements are seamlessly composited. Debris flies off buildings with every touch of the monster."[30]

Rotten Tomatoes reported that 26% of 61 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 4.7 out of 10.[16] At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, the film received a score of 32 based on 23 reviews.[17] The film earned five Golden Raspberry Award nominations in 1999, including Worst Picture, Worst Director (Roland Emmerich) and Worst Screenplay. It won in the categories of Worst Supporting Actress for Maria Pitillo and Worst Remake or Sequel (tied with The Avengers and Psycho).[18]

"Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin's big-budget lizard-stomps-Manhattan disaster flick has been written with the brain dead in mind. The script isn't just "dumbed down," it's lobotomized. Godzilla lives and dies on special effects alone."
—James Berardinelli, writing in ReelViews[20]

Barbara Shulgasser, writing in The San Francisco Examiner, said in a one star review, "OK. Maybe the special effects are slightly more sophisticated than they were in Jurassic Park, but the techno-stuff is all getting a bit boring. When a movie is nothing but relentless action, there's little chance for dramatic tension to develop." She wrote that the film was, "devoid of any discernible plot logic."[21] Mick LaSalle in the San Francisco Chronicle, wrote that the film was "an overblown action monstrosity with no surprises, no exhilaration and no thrills... What passes for thrills is a succession of scenes lifted and extended from Jurassic Park and The Lost World. Godzilla, shot mostly from the waist down, steps on cars and strafes the sides of buildings with his tail."[22] Rita Kempley of The Washington Post, said the film "neither draws upon our fears nor revels in the original's camp charms. The picture really isn't about anything unless it is the deep pockets and shallow minds of the honchos who begat this colossal bore." She wrote further, "Size vanquishes both substance and subtlety in the overhyped, half-cocked and humorless resurrection of dear old Godzilla. It might well be titled Iguana Get You Sucka[23] The film however, was not without its supporters. Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times, wrote that the film was an "An expertly designed theme park ride of a movie that packs nonstop thrills."[24] In a slightly positive fashion, Gary Kamiya of Salon.com commented that "The plot is about as ridiculous as you'd expect, but for the most part its absurdities are tolerable."[25] Joe Leydon of Variety, contributed mildly to the positive sentiment by saying "Throughout Godzilla, New York endures the most sustained rainfall in all of movie history. Most of the action takes place at night, but even the daytime scenes unfold under darkly overcast skies, which, of course, makes it all the easier for Emmerich to obscure Godzilla's features for the maximum amount of time to generate the maximum amount of suspense."[26]

Writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, Roger Ebert gave the film one-and-a-half stars out of four, bluntly noting that "One must carefully repress intelligent thought while watching such a film. The movie makes no sense at all except as a careless pastiche of its betters (and, yes, the Japanese Godzilla movies are, in their way, better - if only because they embrace dreck instead of condescending to it). You have to absorb such a film, not consider it. But my brain rebelled, and insisted on applying logic where it was not welcome."[27] In an entirely negative review, James Berardinelli writing for ReelViews, called the film "one of the most idiotic blockbuster movies of all time, it's like spitting into the wind. Emmerich and Devlin are master illusionists, waving their wands and mesmerizing audiences with their smoke and mirrors. It's probably too much to hope that some day, movie- goers will wake up and realize that they've been had."[20] Stephen Holden of The New York Times wrote that the film "is so clumsily structured it feels as if it's two different movies stuck together with an absurd stomping finale glued onto the end. The only question worth asking about this $120 million wad of popcorn is a commercial one. How much further will the dumbing down of the event movie have to go before the audience stops buying tickets?"[28]

"In Howard Hawks' "The Thing," there is a great scene where scientists in the Arctic spread out to trace the outlines of something mysterious that is buried in the ice, and the camera slowly pulls back to reveal that it is circular — a saucer. In"Godzilla," the worm expert is standing in a deep depression, and the camera pulls back to reveal that he is standing in a footprint. Which he would have already known."
—Roger Ebert, writing for the Chicago Sun-Times[27]

Michael O'Sullivan of The Washington Post queried, "The question is this: Are the awe-inspiring creature effects and roaring battle scenes impressive enough to make you forget the stupid story, inaccurate science and basic implausibility?" Thoughtfully disillusioned, he wrote, "The cut-rate cast seems to have been plucked from the pages of TV Guide. There's Doug Savant from Melrose Place as O'Neal, a scaredy-cat military man who looks like Sgt. Rock and acts like Barney Fife. There's Maria Pitillo (House Rules) as Nick's soporific love interest, Audrey; The Simpsons‚ Hank Azaria and Harry Shearer as a wise-cracking news cameraman and superficial reporter; Vicki Lewis of NewsRadio as a lusty scientist. Shall I continue?"[29] However, in a more upbeat tone, Owen Gleiberman writing for Entertainment Weekly thought "There's no resonance to the new Godzilla, and no built-in cheese value, either. For a while, the filmmakers honor the sentimental paradox that seeped into the later Godzilla films: that this primitive destroyer, like King Kong, doesn't actually mean any harm." He opined that the film contained "some clever and exciting sequences", but ultimately came to the conclusion that, "It says much about today's blockbuster filmmakers that they could spend so much money on Godzilla and still fail to do justice to something that was fairy-tale destructo schlock to begin with."[30] Film critic Aladino Debert of Variety was consumed with the nature of the special effects exclaiming, "the title creature is wonderfully designed and the animation is excellent." Complimenting the technical aspects of the film, he summarized, "The integration of the lizard into its surroundings is for the most part very well accomplished, with rigged cars collapsing under the massive weight of Godzilla, and buildings either demolished or partially damaged. The compositing of the debris and pyrotechnics is generally good, especially when the monster runs or walks on the streets: The asphalt gives way convincingly every time the massive feet touch the ground, and a variety of CGI elements are seamlessly composited. Debris flies off buildings with every touch of the monster."[31]

Toho says the biggest difference between the Japanese and the United States versions is the "overwhelming speed" of the Hollywood dinosaur, which bounds on sinewy legs through the highrises of the Big Apple. Kenpachiro Satsuma, who has worn the Godzilla suit in sevenfilms between 1984 and 1995, says Hollywood "should have followed the original form". "I'm not pleased about this computer-graphic thing being called Godzilla", he toldNewsweek. Others have said the new Godzilla was not as fearless as his predecessor. Film director Shusuke Kaneko told SPA "it is interesting the United States version runs about trying to escape missiles", while Japan's Godzilla stoically stood against military attack. "They seem unable to accept a creature that cannot be put down by their arms", Kaneko observed. Noriaki Ikeda, a special effects critic, praised the Hollywood remake, which he said "energetically smashed the ceiling of visual impact for monster films". Toho says it is unfair that some Japanese suddenly claim Godzilla as their own after having for years dismissed the monster as childish. "Hollywood realised the sophisticated computer graphics and other technically impossible things here in Japan", said Masahiko Suzuki of Toho's marketing division, suggesting that Godzilla's life had run its course and it was time for a fresh, imaginative take. "The film is enjoyable even for long-time Godzilla fans", he said.[32]

Veteran Godzilla actors, Haruo Nakajima and Kenpachiro Satsuma were also critical of the film and its character. Nakajima stated "its face looks like an iguana and its body and limbs look like a frog."[33] Satsuma walked out of the Japanese premiere of the film and commented, "it’s not Godzilla, it doesn’t have his spirit."[34] The "Godzilla" on the film was considered so different from the original Godzilla that the term GINO (acronym for Godzilla In Name Only) was coined by critic Richard Pusateri to distinguish the character apart from the original Godzilla[35] however, Toho (Godzilla's parent owners) later recognized the creature as a totally different monster and officially renamed it as Zilla for later appearances only.[36][37][38]

In a 2012 interview with Entertainment Weekly, co-writer and producer Dean Devlin commented, "I know I screwed up my Godzilla. I'd be very happy if they pull it off and do a great one. I always wish I had another shot at it. But, listen, Godzilla is something that I grew up loving. We worked hard to go make one. We kind of blew it. I think everyone gets one."[39] In an interview with Bloody Disgusting, Devlin blamed the script he and director Emmerich co-wrote, stating, "I think the problem with that movie was the script I wrote. I think Roland did an amazing job directing it, I think the actors are great, I think when people look back now on the Blu-ray and see the visual effects, it's a lot better than what people said at the time. The problem was the script! I made some big errors in that script. I wish I hadn't, I wish I had a chance to fix it."[40]

When asked about his thoughts on Gareth Edwards' upcoming Godzilla film, Devlin has expressed his support of the project, having said, "I'm happy. You know, to get another shot at getting that one right, I understand why they want to do it, and I really hope the best (for them). I hope they get it right."[41] He also added, "I wish them nothing but the best. I would love it if the whole Godzilla franchise was revitalized for a new generation."[42]

Interview

To kick off the events of G-CON'98, long time kaiju fan Aaron J. Smith arranged with the SciFi Channel an online interview with Godzilla suitmation actors Haruo Nakajima and Kenpachiro Satsuma:

"Moderator: Welcome.

Moderator: Before we begin, will you introduce yourself Gcon98 and explain how things are working on your end?

Gcon98: This is Jim posting from the location of G-CON `98 in Chicago. I have with me Mr. Haruo Nakajima and

Gcon98: Mr. Kenpachiro Satsuma, the Men Who Were Godzilla.

Moderator: We`re very pleased to present two actors who have brought to life The King of All Monsters for moviegoers around the world.

Moderator: Haruo Nakajima who originated the role of Godzilla in 1954.

Moderator: And Kenpachiro Satsuma who portrayed Godzilla for over a decade.

Gcon98: We have a translator who will translate their answers to your questions.

Gcon98: I will identify who is answering.

Moderator: Gentlemen, would you please say hello and tell the fans a little bit about

Moderator: yourselves and your work?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: Thank you very much for your warm-hearted interest in Godzilla.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: My dear American Godzilla fans, thank you very much for inviting us to the United States this year.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: If we have a chance, hopefully we will have time to talk to create US-Japan Godzilla.

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: We are deeply expecting to see you at G-CON `98 on the 23rd and 24th!

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: In that case, let`s talk about OUR Godzilla as detailed as we can...

Gcon98: Jim: Please ask any questions that you have...

Moderator: First, the question everyone wants to ask...

Moderator: to : For both: what is their opinion of the new, Hollywood version of Godzilla?

Gcon98: Neither Mr. Nakajima and Mr. Satsuma have seen the new film as of yet.

Gcon98: They will see it tommorrow night.

Gcon98: Do you want to know their impressions of what they have seen so far?

Moderator: to : Mr. Satsuma, Mr. Nakajima, Have you seen a photo of the new Godzilla? If so how do you feel about it? And I thank both of you for all the years of great fun you have given me!

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: To me, its face looks like an iguana and its body and limbs look like a frog.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: Honestly speaking, I am a bit disappointed.

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: As long as we see its legs, it seems to have an ability to run fast...

Moderator: to : Did you have fun playing `Godzilla?`

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: Absolutely!

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: It is painstaking, but worth doing...

Moderator: to : What animal in nature did the actors most Identify with when playing G?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: In my case, in the zoo I observed bears, monkeys and anything big like an elephant.

Gcon98: And I studied the movements of these animals.

Gcon98: Bears movements, especially really helps me to act as Godzilla.

Gcon98: And for the leg movements, elephants really helped.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I studied no particular living animal. I just imagined the Satsuma Godzilla alone.

Moderator: to : I would like to know what motivated Godzilla to attack Tokyo. Was it just animal instinct or was he just passing through and didn`t mean to cause mass destruction?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: This is a question you`d better ask the scriptwriters!

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: Since it is a Japanese brand monster, it is obvious that it attacked Tokyo, the center of society, culture and everything in Japan.

Moderator: to : How much lattitude did the directors allow the actors in their role as Godzilla? Any creative stomping around?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: About 50% planned and 50% my improvisation.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: In my case, it is 90% my creation!

Moderator: to : Which, of all of the 22 Japanese films, do they think best represents the Godzilla mythos?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: All 22 films!

Gcon98: I`ll tell you why: all 22 scripts are treated by the directors, cast and staff as best as possible.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: In terms of monster performance, I really love the battle sequence in the Ashinoko Lake in Godzilla vs. Biollante.

Gcon98: Although its quality is not as high as that sequence, Godzilla vs. Destroyah -- it is a very painstaking and impressive one.

Moderator: to : What was the biggest challenge in playing Godzila?

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: In Godzilla vs. Space Godzilla, the sequence in which Godzilla emerges from the sea to the coast looking for Little Godzilla.

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: Since I did everything I could in all Godzilla movies, I can hardly answer which one was most difficult. All works were challenging!

Moderator: to : what methods did you use to help cool yourself while in those massive rubber suits

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: There was no air conditioning at that time. Fighting spirit was the only method to keep me cool until the end of each scene.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I didn`t have any method to cool myself. Exactly the same as Mr. Nakajima with one exception: my studio was air conditioned.

Moderator: to : Were there a lot of animatronics in the suits, and did you have to operate them yourselves?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: The mouth, eyes are remote controlled. The tail was hung by wire and the staff did not control the tail; the staff just followed my actions.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: The mouth, eyes and neck movements were remote controlled. The tail is the same as Mr. Nakajima; the staff just followed my actions.

Moderator: to : Do either one of you feel suitmation has reached its limit? Do you ever see an end to the traditonal kaiju film?

Moderator: (for those who have recently joined us, please send your questions as private messages to me - /msg Moderator)

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: I never think that the traditional style of kaiju films will end.

Gcon98: The limitations of monster suit expression totally depends on the script.

Gcon98: Once you receive the script, it is the actor`s duty to expand the expression as much as you can.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I never think it can end either.

Gcon98: With one condition: just with much lighter monster suits, you can expand the possibilities of expression.

Gcon98: .

Moderator: to : Did any of these gentlemen ever suffer injuries while playing GODZILLA on the set??

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: Although I once got burned in the shooting, it is confidential, so I can`t tell you which film it is!

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I was about to die countless times; I could just about see the gate of Hell several times!!

Moderator: to : Mr. Nakajima: What did you think of the idea of Godzilla when you first were asked to play him in 1954?

Gcon98: ONe example from last question...

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: Falling into the water pool due to the loss of oxygen; you are automatically going to drown. I am sorry I can`t tell you which film because

Gcon98: I did experience these types of things several times in one film!

Gcon98: Okay, Guyver`s question...

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: Up until that time, there was no kaiju genre; so, all I could do was just imagine it myself.

Moderator: to : What was your favorite monster that Godzilla faces?

Gcon98: Both gentlemen think that these are very good questions!

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: Mr. Sekita, another monster actor, was the best match for me, so the monsters that he played such as Ebirah, Gorosaurus and MechaniKong and Sanda are my favorite monsters.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I love all rivals of Godzilla that I fought because they are all my students (the actors who played the other monsters).

Moderator: to : Did you play any of the other Monsters that appered in Godzilla Movies ?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: I played Rodan, King Kong, Gaira, Varan, Baragon...

Gcon98: Even the huge rat, man-bat and gryphon in Latitude Zero.

Gcon98: I also played many monsters and robots in the Ultra series.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I also played Gigan and Hedorah (the Smog Monster) before I played the Heisei Godzilla. Moderator: to : so is there any hint that there may be a new kaiku film from Toho featuring one of you as the new young Godzilla we saw in the Destroyah movie

Gcon98: A little more from Mr. Satsuma on the last question...

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I also played the eight headed serpent in Yamato Takeru and I also did Pulgasary, the North Korean monster movie.

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: No.

Gcon98: As you know, I am a bit too aged; I am now sorry to say I am 69 years old!

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: I completed my work as a Godzilla actor; I already officially declared retirment as a Godzilla actor.

Moderator: to : What was it like to work with Ishiro Honda?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: He was truly a gentleman; he never showed any anger toward his staff nor the cast.

Moderator: to : How much of yourself is in the big guy`s character?

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: As long as I receive the script, I have to make myself 100% Godzilla!

Gcon98: When you see Godzilla on screen, you can not calculate how much is me and how much is Godzilla.

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: 150% of myself is expressed on the screen.

Gcon98: I become Godzilla totally.

Moderator: One final question:

Moderator: to : Why do you think Godzilla has developed such a vast amount of fans from all over the world?

Moderator: Thank you both for taking the time out of your busy U.S. schedule to chat with

Moderator: Godzilla fans on the Internet.

Moderator: (oops, that was early. ;)

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: As an actor, all I can say is that I did my very best in each film. Telling you the reason why is beyond my comprehension.

Gcon98: GODZILLA ALONE KNOWS THE ANSWER!

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: Though I can think of several reasons (like Godzilla`s nuclear theme) for the huge popularity throughout many generations and lanuguages,

Gcon98: all I can say is THE VICTORY OF IMAGINATION!!!

Moderator: Thanks again for coming online with us to chat with Godzilla fans all over the world.

Gcon98: Mr. Nakajima: My deepest thank you to fans all over the world.

Gcon98: Please keep loving Toho movies in the future!

Gcon98: Mr. Satsuma: All I can say is thank you. If we have another chance, I would like to know the impression of the American Godzilla film on fans all over the world.

Gcon98: G-Con: Thank you very much to Sci-Fi for allowing the Men Who Played Godzilla to chat with their fans.

Gcon98: Thank you also to Aaron J. Smith who organized this chat."[43]

Awards, accolades and nominations

The film was nominated and won several awards in 1998–99.

Award Category Nominee Result
19th Golden Raspberry Awards Worst Picture Dean Devlin Nominated
Worst Director Roland Emmerich Nominated
Worst Supporting Actress Maria Pitillo Won
Worst Screenplay Dean Devlin, Roland Emmerich Nominated
Worst Remake or Sequel Dean Devlin Won
26th Saturn Awards[31] Best Fantasy Film ———— Nominated
Best Direction Roland Emmerich Nominated
Best Special Effects Volker Engel, Patrick Tatopoulos, Karen E. Goulekas, Clay Pinney Won
26th Annie Awards[32] Outstanding Individual Achievement for Effects Animation Jerome Chen Nominated
BMI Film & TV Awards 1999[33] BMI Film Music Award David Arnold Won
Blockbuster Entertainment Award 1999 [34] Favorite Song Sean Combs Nominated
Bogey Awards for 1998[35] Bogey Award in Silver ———— Won
California On Location Awards 1998[36] Location Team of the Year - Feature ———— Won
11th European Film Awards[37] Best European Director Roland Emmerich Won
Motion Picture Sound Editors Reel Awards 1999[38] Best Sound Editing - Sound Effects & Foley ———— Nominated

Box office

Godzilla premiered in cinemas on May 20, 1998 in wide release throughout the United States for the Memorial Day holiday weekend.[1] During that 4-Day period, the film opened in 1st place grossing $55,726,951 in business showing at 3,310 locations.[11] The film Deep Impact opened in 2nd place during that weekend with $19,381,788 in revenue.[11] The film's revenue dropped by 59% in its second week of release, earning $18,020,444. For that particular weekend, the film remained in 1st place as the romantic drama Hope Floats overtook Deep Impact for 2nd place with $14,210,464 in box office business.[39] During its final week in release, Godzilla opened in 19th place grossing $202,157. For that weekend, Lethal Weapon 4 starring Mel Gibson made its debut, opening in 1st place with $34,048,124 in revenue.[40] Godzilla went on to top out domestically at $136,314,294 in total ticket sales through an 8-week theatrical run. Internationally, the film took in an additional $242,700,000 in business for a combined worldwide total of $379,014,294.[1] For 1998 as a whole, the film worldwide would cumulatively rank at a box office performance position of 3, behind Saving Private Ryan and Armageddon.[41]

Legacy and sequels

Cancelled sequels

Two sequels to "Godzilla" were planned, Godzilla 2 and Godzilla 3, but they were cancelled after falling into development hell and because of TriStar's rights to the Godzilla-character expired in 2003.

Animated series

Main article: Godzilla: The SeriesAn animated series called "Godzilla: The Series" was produced as a continuation of the storyline of the film. In the series, Dr. Tatopoulos accidentally discovers the egg that survived at the end of the film before it hatches, in a minor change from the ending of the film. The creature hatches after Niko stumbles onto it and assumes Dr. Tatopoulos as its parent. Subsequently, Dr. Tatopoulos and his associates form a research team, investigating strange occurrences and defending mankind from dangerous mutations.[42]

Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack

Godzilla '98 was briefly referenced in the 2003 film Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack as a fan-service.

Godzilla: Final Wars

The American Godzilla species made its latest appearance on film when the new character Zilla made its first and last appearance in the 2004 film Godzilla: Final Wars. Zilla was created by the director Ryuhei Kitamura exclusively for Final Wars to please dissatisfied fans, unfortunately it went as far as that the fans misinterpreted Zilla as a canonization of the American Godzilla and as a name change of all American Godzilla characters, but Zilla is officially a different character with a different name.

Reboot

An American reboot on the Godzilla-franchise is planned for a summer 2014 release in 3D. There were rumours that the reboot was a sequel to the 1998 film, yet has been claimed to be more close to the Japanese Godzilla character rather than the American Godzilla. The film will show the creature currently known as Godzilla (2014).

Trivia

  • Three voice actors from the comedy series The Simpsons appear in the film: Harry Shearer, Nancy Cartwright and Hank Azaria.
  • Dean Devlin maintains that the tagline for this movie, "Size Does Matter", was meant simply to differentiate the movie from Jurassic Park, hence the original "museum" trailer, but that the advertisers for the studio took it too far with their overzealous campaign (e.g. "His foot is as long as this bus"). The ads became the biggest focus of the backlash against the movie.
  • The film's first teaser trailer began appearing in theaters a full year before the movie was released. The trailer featured a shot of Godzilla's foot coming through the roof of a museum and crushing a T-rex skeleton. This scene was cut from the final version of the movie. It cost $600,000.[44]
  • The film is dedicated to Tomoyuki Tanaka, who produced all of the Japanese Godzilla movies and died only a month before this film began actual production.[45]
  • Matthew Broderick's character's last name is "Tatopoulos." Godzilla's designer and supervisor is Patrick Tatopoulos.
  • The first sequence of the AH64-Apache gunships chasing after Godzilla through the streets references both Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back with the line, "Echo 4 to Echo Base", and Star Wars with "He's right on my tail! I can't shake him!" Both lines were spoken by Luke Skywalker. The first sequence of the AH64-Apache gunships hunting Godzilla through the streets references both _Empire Strikes Back, The (1980)_ with the line "Echo 4 to Echo Base" and _Star Wars Ep. IV (1977)_ with "He's right on my tail! I can't shake him!". Both lines were spoken by Luke Skywalker.[46]
  • The music that plays on an elevator in a scene with Matthew Broderick is "Danke Schoen", which Broderick lip-synchs in a memorable scene from Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986)Elevator music in a scene with Broderick, Matthew is "Danke Schoen," which Broderick lip-synchs in a memorable scene from Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986). A tornado disrupted filming in Jersey City on May 6, 1997. The film crew managed to get some footage of the disaster filmed.[47]
  • The extra killed in his car when Godzilla first arrives in Manhattan was cast as a look-alike for J.D. Lees, editor of G-Fan Magazine, because he said disparaging remarks about the information that leaked out about the film prior to its release.[48]
  • The Japanese freighter attacked and destroyed by Godzilla in the opening of the film is named Kobayashi Maru, in homage to Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan.
  • The Histeria! episode "More Explorers" opened up with a cold opener in which a gigantic Big Fat Baby rises from the sea and goes on a rampage. The film is directly referenced right at the end of the segment by way of the caption "Smell does matter."
  • In the film Godzilla, Mothra and King Ghidorah: Giant Monsters All-Out Attack, it is mentioned that a creature had attacked New York City and that American officials thought it was the Japanese Godzilla but the Japanese didn't think so; it is obvious that they are referring to TriStar's Godzilla remake.
  • The characters of the mayor (Lerner) and his advisor are clearly caricatures of Roger Ebert and Gene Siskel. Reportedly, the less-than-flattering portrayal was because both had given negative reviews of Dean Devlin and Roland Emmerich's earlier film, Independence Day. When the actual Siskel and Ebert reviewed Emmerich's Godzilla on their show, it received two thumbs down and Siskel commented on being spoofed in the film, saying it was "petty".
  • After the release of Godzilla (1998), it's main featured music "Come with me" by Puff Daddy became very popular in Swedish culture, commercials and TV-shows such as the Swedish version of the TV-show Gladiators (franchise) and in the Swedish Vasaloppet.
  • The 1998 film has since its release become the most well known, most popular and most loved Godzilla-film in Sweden. There are also many people, not necessarily fans, in other countries such as USA who also loves the new Godzilla and who thinks the old Godzilla is forgettable in comparison, but which is still liked.
  • The number of the cab used in the chase at the end of the movie is "MN 44." Moon 44 (1990) is the title of an earlier film that was directed by Emmerich, Roland and in which Devlin, Dean appeared.[49]
  • Director's Trademark (Roland Emmerich):[44]: Cab in final chase sequence is cab MN 44.[50]
  • A small statue of an alien from Independence Day (1996) (also directed by Emmerich, Roland) is visible in the broadcast booth at Madison Square Garden. Enough lumber was used for the sets to build 50 homes.[51]
  • Over 1,000 4'x8'x16' Styrofoam blocks were used to build portions of the sets, including the subway tunnels.[52]
  • 35 tons of steel were used to build the sets.[53]
  • There was enough paint used on the film to paint the entire Golden Gate Bridge.[54]
  • 2.4 million gallons (~321,000 cubic feet), of water was used to create rain for the film.[55]
  • Enough non-toxic smoke was created on the film to completely fill the Los Angeles Coliseum 24 hours a day for one week.[56]
  • There were a total of 16 different cabs used to create the entire cab sequence. 2,000 foam fish were made to create the fish pile.[57]
  • Over 1,000 soft architectural pieces were created for falling debris.[58]
  • 20 "car thumpers" were built to lift cars on the street as Godzilla walked.[59]
  • The television station call letters, WIDF, are a reference to the film Independence Day (alias ID4), also made by the team of Devlin, Dean and Emmerich, Roland.[60]
  • Before Azaria, Hank's character runs atop cars to get footage of Godzilla, he looks up and says "Aw Jeez," using the voice of his character "Moe" on "The Simpsons".[61]
  • The policeman seen during Godzilla's arrival is the same policeman (both played by same actor) seen suddenly leaving his patrol car in the middle of an intersection in Independence Day (1996).[62]
  • All the footage of nuclear tests at the start of the film is American, not French. Most of the detonations shown are at Bikini and Eniwetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, Pacific.[63]

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d "Godzilla". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  2. ^ a b c d Roland Emmerich. (1998). Godzilla [Motion picture]. United States: TriStar Pictures.
  3. ^ http://boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2694&p=s.htm
  4. ^ a b Rickitt, Richard (2006). Designing Movie Creatures and Characters: Behind the Scenes With the Movie Masters. Focal Press. pp. 74–76. ISBN 0-240-80846-0.
  5. ^ Rickitt, Richard (2000). Special Effects: The History and Technique. Billboard Books. p. 174. ISBN 0-8230-7733-0.
  6. ^ Godzilla: The Album (1998 Film) Soundtrack. Amazon.com.Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  7. ^ GODZILLA: LIMITED EDITION (2 CD-SET). LA LA LAND RECORDS. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
  8. ^ The Day After Tomorrow: An Interview with Roland Emmerich.blackfilm.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  9. ^ Child, Ben (March 30, 2010). "Godzilla to rampage again".guardian.co.uk (London). Retrieved 2010-08-16.
  10. ^ "May 23-26, 1997 Weekend 4-day Memorial Day Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  11. ^ a b c "May 22-25, 1998 Weekend 4-day Memorial Day Weekend".Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  12. ^ "Godzilla (1998) - DVD". Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  13. ^ "Godzilla (1998, Special Edition) - DVD". Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  14. ^ "Godzilla Blu-Ray". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  15. ^ "Godzilla VOD Format". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  16. ^ Godzilla (1998). Rotten Tomatoes. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  17. ^ Godzilla. Metacritic. CNET Networks. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  18. ^ Wilson, John (2000-08-23). "1998 Archive". Golden Raspberry Award. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  19. ^ a b Berardinelli, James (May 1998). Godzilla. ReelViews. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  20. ^ Shulgasser, Barbara (19 May 1998). GODZILLA RETURN OF THE LIZARD KING. The San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  21. ^ LaSalle, Mick (22 February 2008). Size Doesn't Matter Much. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  22. ^ Kempley, Rita (20 May 1998). 'Godzilla': Dragon On & On. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  23. ^ Thomas, Kevin (20 May 1998). Godzilla. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  24. ^ Kamiya, Gary (20 May 1998). Godzilla. Salon.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  25. ^ Leydon, Joe (17 May 1998). Godzilla. Variety. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  26. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (26 May 1998). Godzilla. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  27. ^ Holden, Stephen (19 May 1998). Godzilla (1998). The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  28. ^ O'Sullivan Michael, (22 May 1998). Doing the Monster Mash. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  29. ^ Gleiberman, Owen (22 May 1998). Godzilla (1998).Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  30. ^ Debert, Aladino (24 May 1998). Godzilla. Variety. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  31. ^ "Past Award Winners". SaturnAwards.org. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  32. ^ "Legacy: 26th Annual Annie Award Nominees and Winners (1998)". AnnieAwards.org. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  33. ^ "BMI Film/TV Awards: 1999". BMI.com. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  34. ^ "1999 Blockbuster Awards". Whosdatedwho.com. Retrieved March 20 2012.
  35. ^ "Bogey in Silber". de.goldenmap.com. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  36. ^ "History". CaliforniaOnLocationAwards.com. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  37. ^ "1998 The Winners". EuropeanFilmAcademy.org. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  38. ^ "Past Golden Reel Awards". mpse.org. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
  39. ^ "May 29-31, 1998 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  40. ^ "July 10-12, 1998 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  41. ^ 1998 WORLDWIDE GROSSES. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
  42. ^ Godzilla: The Series FOX. TV.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  43. ^ a b c d Subers, Ray (29 March 2010). 'Godzilla' To Be Revived in 2012.... Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
  1. http://www.scifijapan.com/articles/2007/01/10/godzilla-2-rumors-unfounded/
  2. http://www.scifijapan.com/articles/2007/01/10/godzilla-2-rumors-unfounded/
  3. 3.0 3.1 Template:Cite book
  4. Template:Cite book
  5. http://kaijusamurai.deviantart.com/art/When-Zilla-Landed-109391268
  6. http://jazzlednightmare16.deviantart.com/art/Run-it-s-Godzilla-347018105
  7. http://www.streetcarmike.com/scvta_flxible_9300.html
  8. Godzilla: The Album (1998 Film) Soundtrack. Amazon.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  9. GODZILLA: LIMITED EDITION (2 CD-SET). LA LA LAND RECORDS. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
  10. The Day After Tomorrow: An Interview with Roland Emmerich. blackfilm.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  11. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/mar/30/godzilla-to-rampage-again
  12. http://www.sonypictures.com/homevideo/catalog/catalogDetail_DVD043396231290.html
  13. http://www.sonypictures.com/homevideo/catalog/catalogDetail_DVD043396140851.html
  14. http://video.barnesandnoble.com/DVD/Godzilla/Matthew-Broderick/e/43396190399?itm=1&usri=godzilla#TABS
  15. http://www.amazon.com/Godzilla/dp/B000I9U75G/ref=sr_1_1?s=instant-video&ie=UTF8&qid=1320547540&sr=1-1
  16. http://www.amazon.com/Godzilla-Mastered-Single-Disc-Blu-ray-Digital/dp/B00CNIDGVW/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1372471450&sr=8-1&keywords=godzilla+4k
  17. 17.0 17.1 Godzilla. Metacritic. CNET Networks. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  18. Godzilla (1998). Rotten Tomatoes. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  19. http://www.razzies.com/asp/content/XcNewsPlus.asp?cmd=view&articleid=38
  20. 20.0 20.1 Berardinelli, James (May 1998). Godzilla. ReelViews. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  21. Shulgasser, Barbara (19 May 1998). GODZILLA RETURN OF THE LIZARD KING. The San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  22. LaSalle, Mick (22 February 2008). Size Doesn't Matter Much. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  23. Kempley, Rita (20 May 1998). 'Godzilla': Dragon On & On. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  24. Thomas, Kevin (20 May 1998). Godzilla. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  25. Kamiya, Gary (20 May 1998). Godzilla. Salon.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  26. Leydon, Joe (17 May 1998). Godzilla. Variety. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Ebert, Roger (26 May 1998). Godzilla. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  28. Holden, Stephen (19 May 1998). Godzilla (1998). The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  29. O'Sullivan Michael, (22 May 1998). Doing the Monster Mash. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  30. Gleiberman, Owen (22 May 1998). Godzilla (1998). Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  31. Debert, Aladino (24 May 1998). Godzilla. Variety. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
  32. http://expressindia.indianexpress.com/news/ie/daily/19980711/19250874.html
  33. http://www.historyvortex.org/GCon98Interview.html
  34. Japan's Favorite Mon-star: The Unauthorized Biography of "The Big G” – Steve Ryfle, page 344
  35. http://www.scifijapan.com/articles/staff-contributors/#RichardPusateri
  36. http://www.trademarkia.com/zilla-76669021.html
  37. http://trademarks.justia.com/766/69/zilla-76669021.html
  38. http://www.acuteip.com/trademarks/case/76669021
  39. Dean Devlin on the recently announced 'Godzilla' reboot: 'I know I screwed up my Godzilla'
  40. http://bloody-disgusting.com/news/25091/dean-devlin-talks-about-the-failure-of-his-godzilla-1998-script/
  41. http://bloody-disgusting.com/news/25091/dean-devlin-talks-about-the-failure-of-his-godzilla-1998-script/
  42. Dean Devlin on the recently announced 'Godzilla' reboot: 'I know I screwed up my Godzilla'
  43. http://www.historyvortex.org/GCon98Interview.html
  44. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  45. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  46. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  47. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  48. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  49. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  50. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  51. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  52. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  53. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  54. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  55. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  56. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  57. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  58. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  59. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  60. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  61. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  62. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie
  63. http://americangodzilla.darkbb.com/t5-facts-about-godzilla-1998-movie

Further reading

  • Tsutsui, William (2004). Godzilla on My Mind: Fifty Years of the King of Monsters. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6474-8.
  • Cerasini, Mark (1998). Godzilla at World's End. Random House Books. ISBN 978-0-679-88827-7.
  • Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-4749-7.
  • Powell, Eric (2011). Godzilla: Kingdom of Monsters, Vol. 1. IDW Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61377-016-0.
  • Ciencin, Scott (1998). Godzilla: Journey to Monster Island. Random House Books. ISBN 978-0-679-88901-4.
  • Mamet, David (2008). Bambi vs. Godzilla: On the Nature, Purpose, and Practice of the Movie Business. Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-3444-4.
  • Ragone, August (2007). Eiji Tsuburaya: Master of Monsters: Defending the Earth with Ultraman and Godzilla. Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-6078-7.
  • Ito, Michiko (2006). In Godzilla's Footsteps: Japanese Pop Culture Icons on the Global Stage. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6461-8.
  • Brothers, Peter (2009). Mushroom Clouds and Mushroom Men: The Fantastic Cinema of Ishiro Honda. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4490-2771-1.
  • West, Mark (2008). The Japanification of Children's Popular Culture: From Godzilla to Miyazaki. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5121-4.
  • Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan's Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of "The Big G". ECW Press. ISBN 978-1-55022-348-4.
  • Smith, David (2009). Godzilla Is In Purgatory: Featuring the Promise of a Gift for all Humanity. Xlibris. ISBN 978-1-4415-9444-0.
  • Bart, Peter (2000). The Gross: The Hits, The Flops: The Summer That Ate Hollywood. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-25391-2.
  • Shapiro, Jerome (2001). Atomic Bomb Cinema: The Apocalyptic Imagination on Film. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-93660-6.
  • Lichtenfeld, Eric (2007). Action Speaks Louder: Violence, Spectacle, and the American Action Movie. Wesleyan. ISBN 978-0-8195-6801-4.
  • Feil, Ken (2006). Dying for a Laugh: Disaster Movies and the Camp Imagination. Wesleyan. ISBN 978-0-8195-6792-5.
  • Jess-Cooke, Carolyn (2009). Film Sequels: Theory and Practice from Hollywood to Bollywood. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-2603-8.
  • Valantin, Jean-Michel (2005). Hollywood, the Pentagon and Washington: The Movies and National Security from World War II to the Present Day. Anthem Press. ISBN 978-1-84331-171-3.
  • Matthews, Melvin (2007). Hostile Aliens, Hollywood and Today's News: 1950s Science Fiction Films and 9/11. Algora Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87586-497-6.

External links

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